Japan

Election results

Data on parliamentary elections, including the background, candidates, voter turnout, results and the formation of the new legislature. By default the latest election results are displayed. Select a date to view results from previous elections

Background

Election date(s) The date when elections started and ended for directly or indirectly elected parliaments/chambers. The date of appointments for appointed parliaments/chambers.
10.07.2016
Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature Date at which the previous legislature (elected at the previous elections) was dissolved.
21.07.2016
Timing of election Timing of election: Upon normal expiry; Early elections; Delayed elections
Upon normal expiry
Expected date of next elections The expected date at which the next elections should take place, based on law or practice.
30.06.2022
Number of seats at stake Number of seats contested at the elections. Where the parliament/chamber is fully renewed, this number is usually identical to the statutory number of members. Where the parliament/chamber is partially renewed or appointed, the number of seats at stake is usually less than the total number of members.
121
Scope of elections Scope of elections: Full renewal; Partial renewal.
Partial renewal

Candidates

Total number of candidates Total number of people who registered as candidates for election. Does not include people who stood as candidates to become "substitute members".
389
Number of male candidates Number of male candidates
293
Number of female candidates Number of female candidates
96
Percentage of women candidates The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of women candidates by the total number of candidates.
24.68%
Notes
225 candidates under the majority system and 164 under the proportional representation system.
Number of parties contesting the election This field may include either the number of parties contesting the election, or the number of coalitions/electoral alliance.
12

Voter turnout

Registration Number of people registered to vote
106,202,873
Votes Number of people who actually voted
58,085,678
Voter turnout The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of people who actually voted by the number of people registered to vote
54.69%

Results

About the election Short description of the context and results of the election.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and its coalition partner, Komeito, retained a majority in the 242-member House of Councillors, winning 70 of the 121 seats at stake. The main opposition Democratic Party (see note 1), led by Mr. Katsuya Okada, won 60 seats compared to 49 at the last election. A record 28 women were elected, bringing the total number of women to 50 out of 242 members (20.66%).

The 2016 elections were the first to be held after the 2015 amendments to the electoral law, which lowered the minimum voting age from 20 to 18 years old. Shortly before calling elections to the House of Representatives, Prime Minister Abe announced that the Government would postpone an increase in Value Added Tax (from 8% to 10%) until October 2019. During the election campaigning, the major parties focused on economic issues, political stability and constitutional amendments.

The Prime Minister has repeatedly stated that he would work to revise the Constitution (see note 2): that would require approval by a two-thirds majority in both Chambers of the Japanese Diet (see note 3). At the 2016 elections, the number of seats won by parties in favour of constitutional amendments has paved the way for the first-ever amendments since 1947. The required two-thirds majority in both chambers is made up of the coalition parties (LDP and Komeito), Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka), the Party for Japanese Kokoro and a number of independent MPs.

Note 1:
The Democratic Party (DP) was formed in March 2016 by the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) and former members of two other parties, Ishin no To (Japan Innovation Party) and Vision of Reform. Those two parties both derived from Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party).

Note 2:
The current Constitution was promulgated in 1946 during the period when Japan was occupied by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP). The SCAP rejected the initial draft constitution prepared by the Japanese authorities. The Government Section of the SCAP then wrote a new draft. Today, parties in favour of constitutional amendments argue that as a sovereign State, Japan should adopt a new Constitution written by Japanese nationals. The main aim of the amendments would be to define more clearly the right to self-defence. The current Constitution's provisions on Japan's right to self-defence (Article 9) have been variously interpreted.

Note 3:
Article 96 of the Constitution stipulates that constitutional amendments require "a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each House" and "a majority of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum".

Parliamentary groups in the House of Councillors (As of 1 August 2016)
- Liberal Democratic Party (LDP): 122
- The Democratic Party and The Shin-Ryokufukai (DP-SR): 50
- Komeito (KP): 25
- Japanese Communist Party (JCP): 14
- Initiatives from Osaka (IFO): 12
- Independents Club (IC): 5
- Hope Coalition (Kibou, HC): 5
- The Party for Japanese Kokoro (PJK): 3
- Okinawa Whirlwind (OW): 2
- Independents: 4
http://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/joho1/kousei/eng/strength/index.htm
Number of parties winning seats The number of parties which won parliamentary representation in the given election.
7
Percentage of parties winning seats The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of parties which won parliamentary representation by the number of parties contesting the election.
58.33%
Percentage of seats won by largest party or coalition The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of seats won by the largest party by the number of seats at stake in the election.
46.28%
Alternation of power after elections The results of the elections caused a change in the government. "Not applicable" to countries using the presidential system when parliamentary and presidential elections are held separately, to countries in political transition or where there is no party system.
No
Number of parties in government The government may be formed by one or more political parties
2
Names of parties in government The government may be formed by one or more political parties
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Komeito
Parties or coalitions winning seats
Political groups winning seats breakdown
Political group Total
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) 56
Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) 32
Komeito 14
Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka) 7
Japanese Communist Party (JCP) 6
Independents 4
Social Democratic Party (SDP) 1
Seikatsu no To (People's Life Party) 1
Members elected, by sex
Number of men elected
93
Number of women elected
28
Percentage of women elected The percentage is calculated by dividing the number of women elected in the election and the number of seats at stake at the election.
23.14%
Note on the Distribution of seats according to sex
The "Distribution of seats according to sex" above shows the breakdown for the MPs elected in 2016: 28 women of 121 members or 23.14 per cent.
After the 2016 elections, there were 50 women in all out of 242 members or 20.66%.
Other notes
Note on the "Distribution of seats":
The number of seats for the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) includes one independent candidate who received the LDP's endorsement after the elections.

Note on the Democratic Party (DP) and the Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka):
In December 2013, some members of Your Party (Minna no To) formed Yui no To (the Unity Party). In September 2014, Nippon Ishin no Kai (the Japan Restoration Party) and the Unity Party merged to form Ishin no To (the Japan Innovation Party, JIP). In October 2015, Ishin no To split into the Osaka Ishin no Kai (Initiatives from Osaka) and the Vision of Reform Party. In March 2016, the Democratic Party of Japan formed the Democratic Party with some former members of JIP and the Vision of Reform Party.
Sources
House of Councillors (14.07.2016)
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications
Nhk News
National Diet Library
Women Directly Elected
50

New legislature

Total number of men after the election The total number of male parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
192
Total number of women after the election The total number of female parliamentarians in this parliament/chamber following the election or renewal, regardless of their modes of designation.
50
First-term parliamentarians The number of members who are assuming their parliamentary mandate for the first time following the election or renewal, regardless of their mode of designation.
39
Date of the first session The date when the newly elected parliament/chamber was convened for the first time. It may be different from the date when members were sworn in.
01.08.2016
First Speaker of the new legislature
First Speaker of the new legislature First name of the Speaker of the new legislature following the election or renewal.
Chuichi Date (Male)
Political party
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
Date of election
01.08.2016