Japan

Oversight

Data on parliament’s oversight role and activities

Oversight tools

Parliament has the power to summon members of the government
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Constitution, art. 63
Parliament has the power to summon senior government officials
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Article 71 of the Diet Act; Article 42 (II)(III) of the Rules of the House of Councillors
Parliament has the power to approve key government appointments Key government appointments include, for example, ambassadors or the head of the central bank.
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Article 23 of the Bank of Japan Act; Article 4 of the Board of Audit Act; Article 5 of the National Public Service Act
Approximate number of government appointments subject to parliamentary approval
256
Number of written questions asked, per year
235 (2019)
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Number of written questions answered by the government, per year
235 (2019)
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Parliament has power to carry out inquiries
Yes
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Constitution, art. 62; Rules of the House of Councillors, art. 180-186
Notes
The number of parliamentary enquiries cannot be counted because they are conducted on an almost daily basis in various forms.

Head of State and/or Government

Head of State and/or Government
Parliament’s role in the designation of the Head of Government Some parliaments elect the Head of Government or approve the nomination for the Head of Government. Others do not play a role.
Parliament elects the Head of Government
Notes
The Emperor shall appoint the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. If the House of Representatives and House of Councillors disagree, or the House of Concillors fails to make a designation within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Articles 6 and 67 of the Constitution; Article 18 of the Rules of the House of Representatives; Article 20 of the House of Councillors
The Head of Government is also the Head of State
No
Parliament’s role

Impeachment and confidence motions

Procedure for parliament
There is a procedure for parliament to dismiss or impeach the following persons/institution There is a procedure to dismiss or impeach the following persons/institution: Not applicable (there is no procedure); The whole Government; The Head of Government; The Head of State; Individual members of the Executive; Other (please specify)
Not applicable (there is no procedure)
Chambers that play a role in the dismissal or impeachment In bicameral parliaments: Chambers that play a role in the dismissal or impeachment: Lower chamber; Upper chamber; Not applicable
Not applicable
Impeachment Role
There is a procedure for parliament to express no confidence in the following persons/institution There is a procedure for parliament to express no confidence in the following persons/institution: Not applicable (there is no procedure); The whole Government; The Head of Government; Individual members of the Executive; Other (please specify)
The whole Government
Source Legal documents that stipulate parliament's role.
Constitution, art. 69
Chambers that play a role in motions of no confidence In bicameral parliaments: Chambers that play a role in motions of no confidence: Lower chamber; Upper chamber; Not applicable
Lower chamber
Parliament is automatically dissolved when a motion of no confidence is adopted In some countries, the adoption of a motion of no confidence in the Government automatically leads to the dissolution of Parliament in certain countries. In other cases, a new government can be formed.
No