Japan

Start and end of mandate

Start of the parliamentary mandate for newly elected members
When the election results are declared
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Start of the parliamentary mandate for appointed members
Not applicable
End of the parliamentary mandate
On the last day of the chamber’s term (including in the case of early dissolution)
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Speaker

Mode of designation of the Speaker
The Speaker is elected from among the members of parliament/chamber
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Authority that designates the Speaker When the Speaker is designated from outside parliament.
Not applicable
Rank of the Speaker in the hierarchy of the State The Speaker often has a very high rank in the protocollary hierarchy of the State.
Notes
In accordance with the principle of separation of powers between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, no provision is made for any order of precedence for the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the President of the House of Councillors, the Prime Minister, or the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Speaker becomes interim Head of State in the event of the latter’s death or incapacity In some countries, the Speaker acts as interim Head of State when required by the circumstances, such as death or incapacity.
No
Speaker's mandate continues between legislatures The mandate of the Speaker may continue until their successor is elected, even after the dissolution of parliament/chamber.
No
Speaker terms
The term of the Speaker is different from the term of the house The term of the Speaker may be different from the term of the House (legislature).
No
Speaker's term The term may be shorter than one year.
6 Years
Fixed election date for the Speaker, if any Speakers in several parliaments are elected on a fixed date in accordance with the Constitution.
August, every three years

Immunity and code of conduct

Parliament’s authorization is required for the detention or prosecution of members
Yes, except for flagrant delicto
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Notes
except for cases involving flagrant delicto or where the consent of the house is obtained, members of both houses are exempt from arrest while the diet or an emergency session of the house of councillors is in session. any member arrested prior to the opening of a session is to be freed upon demand of the house for the term of the session (constitution, art. 50; diet law, art. 33 and 100(1)). the cabinet must request the house’s consent before arresting one of its members and must produce a copy of a written request received from a competent court or judge before issuing the arrest warrant (diet law, art. 34). members of neither house can be held liable outside the house for speeches, debates, or votes cast inside the house (constitution, art. 51). there is, however, no provision that requires the diet’s authorization to prosecute diet members.
There is a Code of conduct for members

Salaries and allowances

Basic salary
13,457,600 (2020)
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Basic allowances
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Names of the basic allowances
Expenses for mail, phone and other communication, transport, and lodging (12,000,000 JPY - tax exempt)
End-of-term allowance (6,285,605 JPY - taxable)
Members pay income tax on salaries Salaries and/or allowances may be subject to income tax or equivalent.
Yes
Members can have remunerated employment outside parliament Certain parliaments allow MPs to exercise other remunerated employment outside parliament.
Members are required to declare income from other employment to parliament In certain countries, MPs exercising other employment may be required to declare their income.
Yes
List of the other allowances provided for constituency work
Free tickets for Japanese Railways (JR) and/or round-trip air tickets to a member's constituency.
An apartment is provided for members and a maximum of three Secretaries' salaries.
Facilities, services and allowances for constituency work
Personal staff to work directly for the parliamentarian The personal staff to work directly for the parliamentarian is different from parliamentary staff work for the secretariat of Parliament.
Office at parliament
Constituency office Certain countries provide for an office at constituency if it’s different from a seat of parliament, which is often in the capital. The office at constituency is applicable mainly to the countries using the Plurality/Majority system of elections.
Other cash or in-kind allowances for constituency work The common in-kind allowances for constituency work include those for travel, overnight stay, etc.
Yes
Additional salaries and allowances for leadership positions
List of salaries and allowances for leadership positions
Salary Allowances
Speaker yes yes
Committee Chair yes yes
Other leadership positions that receive additional salaries or allowances Some parliaments provides for additional salaries or allowances to the Deputy Speaker/Vice President, heads of parliamentary groups, etc.
Speaker: 22,568,000 JPY basic salary, 6,000 JPY additional allowance per day during session, and 10,540,775 JPY end-of-term allowance.
Vice Speaker: 16,473,600 JPY basic salary, 6,000 JPY additional allowance per day during session, and 7,694,280 end-of-term allowance.
Committee Chairs: no additional allowances except 6,000 JPY per day for committee sessions
Parliament determines the amount of salaries Some parliaments determine the amount of salaries of MPs. The amount may be set by other institution than parliament.
Yes
Name of the body (or bodies) in parliament which determines the amount
By Law
Parliament determines the amount of allowances Some parliaments determine the amount of allowances of MPs. The amount may be set by other institution than parliament.
Yes
Name of the body (or bodies) in parliament which determines the amount
By Law
The parliamentary salary is determined in reference to another salary scale In some countries, the amount of parliamentary salary is determined in reference to another salary scale, such as civil service salary scale, ministerial salary or the minimum wage of the country.
Reference scale used for parliamentary salaries Reference scale used for parliamentary salaries: Civil service salary scale; Ministerial salary; Minimum wage; Other (please specify)
The data valid for the year
2020
Information on salaries and allowances on the parliamentary website Certain parliaments publish the information on MPs’ salaries and allowances on parliamentary website. The amount of information may vary from one parliament to the other.
Amount of allowances received by each member
No

Participation in the government

Members of the government must also be members of parliament Members of the government must also be members of parliament: Must be a member of parliament; Cannot be a member of parliament; Can be a member of parliament; Other
Can be a member of parliament
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Number of members of the parliament/chamber who are also members of the government
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