Germany

German Bundestag

Political system
Parliamentary system
Structure of parliament
Bicameral
IPU membership
Yes

Election results

Data on parliamentary elections, including the background, candidates, voter turnout, results and the formation of the new legislature. By default the latest election results are displayed. Select a date to view results from previous elections.

Background

Election date(s)
26 Sep 2021
Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature
26 Oct 2021
Timing of election
Upon normal expiry
Expected date of next elections
30 Sep 2025
Number of seats at stake
736
Scope of elections
Full renewal

Candidates

Number of parties contesting the election
47
Total number of candidates
6,211

Notes: In addition to 4,186 men and 2,024 women, one other person (diverse) stood for the 2021 elections.

Number of male candidates
4,186
Number of female candidates
2,024
Number of other candidates
1
Percentage of women candidates
32.6%

Voter turnout

Registered voters
61,181,072
Voters
46,854,508
Voter turnout
76.6%

Results

About the election

The 2021 elections led to the first powershift in 16 years. The Social Democratic Party (SPD), led by Mr. Olaf Scholz, became the largest party in the new 736-member legislature (see note). The SPD won nine more seats than the ruling coalition, which comprised the Christian Democratic Union (CDU, led by Ms. Armin Laschet) and Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU). The Green Party (co-led by Ms. Annalena Baerbock and Mr. Robert Habeck) sharply increased its share of seats and became the third largest party. The percentage of women increased from 30.75 per cent (218 women out of 709 members) to 34.92 per cent (257 women out of 736 members). Two transgender women won seats for the first time in Germany. On 26 October, the newly elected Bundestag held its first session and elected Ms. Bärbel Bas (SPD) as its new Speaker. She became the first woman to hold the post since 1998.

On 7 December, the SPD, the Green Party and the Free Democratic Party (FDP, led by Mr. Christian Lindner) officially signed a deal to form a coalition government. On 8 December, the Bundestag elected Mr. Scholz as the new Chancellor. He replaced Ms. Angela Merkel (CDU), who had held the post since 2005. Amongst others, the coalition deal aims to accelerate the green transition, allow multiple citizenship and lower the voting age from 18 to 16.

Note:

In addition to the 598 statutory seats, there are a total of 138 additional seats, including 34 overhang seats. (See note on overhang seats in the Other Notes section).

Number of parties winning seats
8
Percentage of parties winning seats
17.0%
Percentage of seats won by largest party or coalition
28.0%
Alternation of power after elections
Yes
Number of parties in government
3
Names of parties in government
Social Democratic Party (SPD), Green Party, Free Democratic Party (FDP)

Parties or coalitions winning seats

Parties or coalitions winning seats
Political group Total Overhang seats Other extra seats
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 206 10 26
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 152 12 18
Green Party 118 0 24
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 92 0 16
Alternative for Germany (AfD) 83 1 13
Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU) 45 11 0
Left Party (Die Linke) 39 0 7
The South-Schleswigian Voters’ Association 1 0 0
Members elected, by sex
Number of men elected
479
Number of women elected
257
Percentage of women elected
34.9%
Women Directly Elected
257
Other notes on the elections

Note on the overhang seats:

The statutory number of the German Bundestag is 598, of which 299 members are elected under the majority (first-past-the post) system and the remaining seats are filled through the proportional representation system using the party list. If a party wins more seats in the majority system (the first vote) than the results of the proportional representation system (second vote) would normally entitle it to keep the additional seats, called "overhang seats" (Überhangmandate).

Based on the 2013 amendments to the Federal Electoral Act, if a party gets overhang seats, extra seats (also known as balance seats) can be attributed to the party to ensure complete proportionality of the share of votes for all parties nationwide.

In 2021, there were a total of 138 additional seats, including 34 overhang seats. The 2021 legislature thus comprises 736 seats in all up from 709 in the 2017 legislature. The 2017 legislature had included 111 additional seats of which 46 were overhang seats.

Sources

New legislature

Total number of men after the election
479
Total number of women after the election
257
Percentage of women after the election
34.9%
First-term parliamentarians
281
Percentage of first-term parliamentarians
38.2%
Date of the first session
26 Oct 2021

First Speaker of the new legislature

Personal details for the first Speaker of the new legislature
Bärbel Bas (Female)
Date of birth: 03 May 1968
Political party
Social Democratic Party (SPD)
Date of election
26 Oct 2021

Historical data for IPU membership

Historical data for IPU membership
Year IPU membership
2020-09
List of values for 2020-09
No
2019-04
List of values for 2019-04
No
2018-06
List of values for 2018-06
No