Germany

German Bundestag

Political system
Parliamentary system
Structure of parliament
Bicameral
IPU membership
Yes

Parliamentary mandate

Start and end of mandate

Date of start of mandate for newly elected members
Not applicable
Not applicable. Members of this parliament/chamber are not elected.
Yes
Start of the parliamentary mandate for appointed members
Not applicable
Date of start of mandate for appointed members
Not applicable
End of the parliamentary mandate
When the new chamber meets for the first time
Date of end of mandate
Not applicable

Speaker

Mode of designation of the Speaker
The Speaker is elected from among the members of parliament/chamber
Authority that designates the Speaker when the Speaker is designated from outside parliament.
Not applicable
Rank of the Speaker in the hierarchy of the State
Second
Speaker becomes interim Head of State in the event of the latter’s death or incapacity
No
Speaker's mandate continues between legislatures
Yes

Speaker terms

The term of the Speaker is different from the term of the house
No
Speaker's term
4 Years
Fixed election date for the Speaker, if any
No information available

Immunity and code of conduct

Parliament’s authorization is required for the detention or prosecution of members
Yes, except for flagrant delicto

Notes: In criminal cases, no permission has to be obtained from the Bundestag for the arrest of or the initiation of criminal proceedings against a member, if he/she is apprehended in flagrante delicto or in the course of the following day.

Sources:

Basic Law, art. 46(2)
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/cmsdata/90761/Parliamentary%20Immunity%20in%20the%20German%20Bundestag%20EN.pdf

There is a Code of conduct for members
Yes

Salaries and allowances

Members are paid salaries by parliament
Yes
(2020)
Basic salary, per year
125,146 EUR
(2023)
Basic salary, per year in PPP
171,433
(2023)
Basic allowances
Click for historical data
Basic allowance in PPP
74,256
Names of the basic allowances

Costs allowance

Members pay income tax on salaries
Yes
Members pay income tax on allowances
No
Members can have remunerated employment outside parliament
Yes
Members are required to declare income from other employment to parliament
Yes
Additional salaries and allowances provided for leadership positions
Yes

Facilities, services and allowances for constituency work

Personal staff to work directly for the parliamentarian
No
Office at parliament
Yes
Constituency office
No
Housing
No
Other cash or in-kind allowances for constituency work
Yes

Notes:

Personal staff: MPs receive an allowance to employ personal staff to assist in carrying out parliamentary work.

Members receive an annual first-class rail pass for the German railway.

The basic costs allowance that MPs receive cover the costs associated with running a constituency office and/or housing in Berlin.

Additional salaries and allowances for leadership positions
List of salaries and allowances for leadership positions
Salary Allowances
Speaker Yes Yes
Committee Chair Yes Yes

Notes:

Speaker - 10,083 euros per month

Deputy Speaker - 5042 euros per month

Committee Chairs - 1513 euros per month

Salary of the Speaker
No information available
Parliament determines the amount of salaries
Yes
Name of the body (or bodies) in parliament which determines the amount

Salary is adjusted annually on 1 July on the basis of the nominal wage index provided by the German Federal Bureau of Statistics to the Speaker of the Bundetag each year on 31 March. The Speaker then determines the amount of the salary and publishes it.

Parliament determines the amount of allowances
Yes
Name of the body (or bodies) in parliament which determines the amount

Allowance is adjusted on 1 January of each year based on the general costs of living of all private households in the previous calendar year. The amount of the allowances is determined without any discretion and is published by the president of the German Bundestag.

Name of the institution outside parliament which determines the amount
No information available
The parliamentary salary is determined in reference to another salary scale
No
Information on salaries and allowances on the parliamentary website
Year data was last reported

2020

Participation in the government

Members of the government must also be members of parliament
Other

Notes: Members of the Executive can be members of the Bundestag but not of the Bundesrat, each of whose members must hold the office of minister or premier in one of the 16 German states.

Number of members of the parliament/chamber who are also members of the government
49
(2023)
Members for whom data is available
736
(2021)
Percentage of members of parliament/chamber who are also members of the government
6.7%
(2023-11 - 2023-12)

Historical data for IPU membership

Historical data for IPU membership
Year IPU membership
2020-09
List of values for 2020-09
No
2019-04
List of values for 2019-04
No
2018-06
List of values for 2018-06
No