Political system
Parliamentary system
Structure of parliament
IPU membership

Election results

Data on parliamentary elections, including the background, candidates, voter turnout, results and the formation of the new legislature. By default the latest election results are displayed. Select a date to view results from previous elections.


Election date(s)
23 Jul 2023
Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature
No information available
Timing of election
Early elections
Expected date of next elections
31 Jul 2027
Number of seats at stake
Scope of elections
Full renewal


About the election

No party won an outright majority in the early general elections held in July 2023. The People's Party (PP), led by Mr. Alberto Núñez Feijóo, became the largest force in both chambers, taking 136 seats in the 350-member Congress of Deputies, and 120 seats in the 265-member Senate. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), led by Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez, became the second largest force in both chambers with 122 and 72 seats respectively.

After Mr. Núñez Feijóo (PP), in alliance with Vox, failed twice to secure parliamentary support for a coalition government, then on 3 October 2023, King Felipe VI tasked Acting Prime Minister Sánchez (PSOE) with forming a government. On 16 November, the Congress of Deputies elected Mr. Sánchez (PSOE) as the Prime Minister for a third term. The new governing coalition, which jointly holds 179 seats, comprises the PSOE and seven other political parties, including SUMAR, ERC, Junts, EH Bildu, and EAJ-PNV (see note 1). On 21 November, the new Cabinet led by Mr. Sánchez (PSOE) was sworn in before King Felipe VI.

The snap elections in July 2023 followed a setback for the PSOE in local and regional elections held on 28 May. General elections were constitutionally due by early 2024 (see note 2). Key electoral questions included gender issues, the LGBTIQ+ agenda, and the nationalist and independentist movements.

Note 1:
The coalition agreement between PSOE and Junts (a separatist party in Catalonia) included an amnesty law for Catalan separatists who had been involved in a failed attempt to make Catalonia an independent country in 2017.

Note 2:
The four-year term of the outgoing legislature started in December 2019, and was thus due to expire in December 2023. In accordance with Article 68.6 of the Constitution, elections were due between 30 and 60 days thereafter.

Number of parties winning seats
Percentage of seats won by largest party or coalition
Number of parties in government
Names of parties in government
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and seven other political parties, including SUMAR, ERC, Junts, EH Bildu, and EAJ-PNV

Parties or coalitions winning seats

Parties or coalitions winning seats
Political group Total
People's Party (PP) 120
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 72
Left for Independence 7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV) 4
Junts per Catalunya (“Together for Catalonia”, JxCAT) - Junts 1
Gomera Socialist Group (ASG) 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHÍ) 1
Ibiza and Formentara in the Senate (PSOE-SUMAR-EUIB-ARA EIVISSA) 1
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 1
Members elected, by sex
Number of men elected
Number of women elected
Percentage of women elected
Women Directly Elected
Women Indirectly Elected
Other notes on the elections

There are six vacancies among the 57 directly elected members.


New legislature

Total number of men after the election
Total number of women after the election
Percentage of women after the election
First-term parliamentarians
No information available
Percentage of first-term parliamentarians
No information available
Date of the first session
17 Aug 2023

First Speaker of the new legislature

Personal details for the first Speaker of the new legislature
Pedro Rollán (Male)
Date of birth: 21 Mar 1969
Political party
People's Party (PP)
Date of election
17 Aug 2023

Historical data for IPU membership

Historical data for IPU membership
Year IPU membership
List of values for 2020-09
List of values for 2019-04
List of values for 2018-06