Political system
Parliamentary system
Structure of parliament
IPU membership


Data on parliament’s law-making role and activities

Legislative activity

Number of laws adopted by parliament, per year


Annual totals include both ordinary and organic laws, as well as legislative decrees.

Other than by parliament or the Executive, laws may be initiated by the Assemblies of the Autonomous Communities by a request to their Government to adopt or send a bill to the Congress Committee. They may send up to three delegates to the parliament to defend said bill;

Laws (with the exception of specific organic laws, tax, or international law) may also be initiated by the exercise of popular initiative with a minimum of 500,000 accredited signatures (Constitution, art. 87).

Total number of laws adopted by Parliament in the previous legislature
(2023-08 - 2023-11)
Number of laws adopted in the previous legislature that were initiated by parliament
(2023-08 - 2023-11)
Number of laws adopted in the previous legislature that were initiated by the government
(2023-08 - 2023-11)
Percentage of laws initiated by parliament in the previous legislature
(2023-08 - 2023-11)
Dates of the previous legislature
03 Dec 2019 to 17 Aug 2023
(2023-08 - 2023-11)
Outcome when the two chambers cannot agree on a piece of draft legislation
The decision of the lower chamber will take effect after a certain deadline

Sources: Constitution, art. 90

Executive-legislative relations

Legislation adopted by parliament requires the assent of the Head of State

Sources: Constitution, art. 62 and 91

Number of times the Head of State declined to give assent to legislation, per year
No information available
Consequences when the Head of State declines to give assent to legislation
Not applicable
Final decision when parliament and the Head of State do not agree
Not applicable

Existence of a procedure to introduce emergency legislation

Click for historical data

Notes: Emergency legislation in Spain is understood as laws made by decree.

Sources: Royal / Legislative Decree Laws, Consitution art. 86

Historical data for IPU membership

Historical data for IPU membership
Year IPU membership
List of values for 2020-09
List of values for 2019-04
List of values for 2018-06