Netherlands

House of Representatives

Political system
Parliamentary system
Structure of parliament
Bicameral
IPU membership
Yes

Election results

Data on parliamentary elections, including the background, candidates, voter turnout, results and the formation of the new legislature. By default the latest election results are displayed. Select a date to view results from previous elections.

Background

Election date(s)
22 Nov 2023
Date of dissolution of the outgoing legislature
No information available
Timing of election
Early elections
Expected date of next elections
30 Nov 2027
Number of seats at stake
150
Scope of elections
Full renewal

Candidates

Number of parties contesting the election
26
Total number of candidates
1,128

Notes: Candidates are not required to specify their sex on the list of candidates. Out of the 1,128 candidates who stood at the 2023 elections, 417 specified male and 210 specified female, while 501 others left the field empty.

Number of male candidates
417
Number of female candidates
210
Number of other candidates
501
Percentage of women candidates
18.6%

Voter turnout

Registered voters
13,473,750
Voters
10,475,139
Voter turnout
77.7%

Results

About the election

The Party for Freedom (PVV), led by Mr. Geert Wilders, became the largest party in the 150-member House of Representatives after snap elections held in November 2023. The PVV took 37 seats, up from 24 in 2021. Three other parties won more than 20 seats (see note 1) while 11 others took fewer than 9 seats. The newly elected House of Representatives, which held its first session on 14 December, comprised 89 men, 60 women, and the world’s first non-binary member according to IPU records.

The 2023 snap elections were held over one year before they were constitutionally due. They followed the collapse of the coalition government (see note 2), led by the country’s longest-serving Prime Minister Mark Rutte (VVD), over its migration policies. Mr. Rutte announced that he would not stand in the snap elections. The key electoral issues in 2023 included immigration, living standards and climate change.

Note 1:

The Labour Party (PvdA, led by Mr. Frans Timmermans, former European Union Commissioner for Climate Action), the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD, led by Ms. Dilan Yeşilgöz-Zegerius and New Social Contract (NSC, led by Mr. Pieter Herman Omtzigt). The NSC is a splinter party of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), which took five seats in 2023.

Note 2:

The outgoing coalition government comprised the VVD, CDA, Democrats 66 (D66) and the Christian Union.

Number of parties winning seats
15
Percentage of parties winning seats
57.7%
Percentage of seats won by largest party or coalition
24.7%

Parties or coalitions winning seats

Parties or coalitions winning seats
Political group Total
Party for Freedom (PVV) 37
Labour Party (PvdA) 25
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) 24
New Social Contract (NSC) 20
Democrats 66 (D66) 9
Farmer-Citizen Movement (BoerBurgerBeweging, BBB) 7
Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) 5
Socialist Party (SP) 5
Forum for Democracy (FvD) 3
Party for the Animals (PvdD) 3
Christian Union 3
Reformed Political Party (SGP) 3
DENK 3
Volt 2
JA21 1
Members elected, by sex
Number of men elected
89
Number of women elected
60
Number of other elected
1
Percentage of women elected
40.0%
Women Directly Elected
60
Sources

New legislature

Total number of men after the election
89
Total number of women after the election
60
Percentage of women after the election
40.0%
Total number of other parliamentarians after the election
1
First-term parliamentarians
67
Percentage of first-term parliamentarians
44.7%
Date of the first session
06 Dec 2023

First Speaker of the new legislature

Personal details for the first Speaker of the new legislature
Martin Bosma (Male)
Date of birth: 16 Jul 1964
Political party
Party for Freedom (PVV)
Date of election
14 Dec 2023

Historical data for IPU membership

Historical data for IPU membership
Year IPU membership
2020-09
List of values for 2020-09
No
2019-04
List of values for 2019-04
No
2018-06
List of values for 2018-06
No